2023 Author: Adelina Croftoon | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-24 12:05
It is known that obesity - This is a process of gradual accumulation of fat in the body, which often leads to the appearance of excess body weight. In this case, fat is deposited in special "fat depots": Subcutaneous fatty tissue and around the internal organs.
And overweight is already numerous problems for its owner. Thus, most obese people usually have low self-esteem, depression, emotional stress and other psychological problems due to the prejudice that exists towards them in society.
But obesity is not just a psychological problem. Excess weight is also the cause of many serious diseases of the liver, kidneys, cardiovascular system, and also provokes the development of diabetes mellitus and some types of malignant tumors. In obese people, these diseases occur 6-9 times more often than in people of normal build.
Moreover, obesity, even to a small extent, shortens life expectancy by an average of 4-5 years; if it is pronounced, then life is shortened by 10-15 years. For example, data from the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Preservation of Health in the United States indicate that about 300,000 Americans die each year due to diseases caused by obesity.
In general, medical statistics show that, on average, 60-70% of deaths are associated with diseases, which are based on disorders of fat metabolism and obesity.
But in the world, according to 2014, more than 1.9 billion adults aged 18 and older are overweight. Of this number, over 600 million people are obese.
As for certain regions of the world, for example, in almost all European countries, 15-25% of the adult population is subject to obesity.
Moreover, in developed countries, the number of overweight people is, according to various estimates, from 35 to 55%, and in some countries (Canada, USA, Australia, Great Britain, New Zealand and Greece) - 60-70%. Overweight women in these statistics account for about 52%, men - 48%.
Top obese countries according to WHO data from 2013.
It should be noted that in the list of the most obese nations, Russia occupies a far from leading position, although more than 30% of the country's working-age population suffers from overweight and obesity. At the same time, obesity in Russia affects 24% of women and 10% of men.
Experts are also concerned about the fact that the proportion of overweight people in the world is constantly increasing. Thus, in the UK, over the past 25 years, the number of people susceptible to obesity has increased by about 5 times.
Of particular concern are the data showing that the number of overweight children and adolescents has increased globally in recent years. Thus, in developed countries, 25% of the younger generation are overweight, while 15% are obese. The United States, South Africa and Italy have been most affected by childhood obesity.
It has long been proven that being overweight in childhood is a high likelihood of obesity in adulthood. At the very least, statistics show that 50% of overweight children at 6 years old begin to gain weight, and being overweight in adolescence increases this probability to 80%.
Given these facts, WHO in its documents recognizes that obesity has already acquired the character of a global epidemic, or pandemic.
Since obesity is a metabolic disease, then, like any disease, it imposes a certain burden on the economy. For example, WHO experts estimate that in developed countries the costs of obesity amount to 7% of the overall health budget.
Although it is assumed that this figure is much higher. For example, in the United States, about $ 150 billion is spent annually on obesity treatment. To this figure should also be added losses from a decrease in labor productivity, loss of working capacity, etc. As a result, the cost rises to $ 270 billion per year.
And in a 2012 UN report, it was noted that due to worldwide obesity, labor productivity is decreasing, and health insurance costs are increasing to $ 3.5 trillion a year, which is 5% of world GDP. According to statistics, back in 1995 this figure was 2 times lower.
Naturally, in order to fight obesity in people on a global or national scale, it is necessary at least to know the causes of this phenomenon. Of course, the weight of a person is determined to a certain extent by heredity. However, genetics alone cannot explain the increasing percentage of overweight people globally.
Therefore, doctors believe that the main cause of human obesity (95-97%) is the discrepancy between the amount of food consumed and the energy consumed by it. At the same time, some experts focus on the increasing calorie content of food, while others - on the decrease in physical activity of a modern person.
In fact, both are right. So, on the one hand, cooking has become easier and faster, and the products themselves are relatively cheap, on the other hand, various mechanisms have replaced physical labor, and many professions have become "office".
Age also plays an important role in the development of obesity. The fact is that with age, there are disturbances in the work of the appetite center. And to suppress hunger, many elderly people begin to eat more and more food, that is, in other words, overeat.
In addition, weight gain in old age is influenced by a decrease in the activity of the thyroid gland, which synthesizes hormones involved in metabolism.
However, in addition to these factors leading to obesity, the researchers also name others. For example, many experts believe that there is a strong relationship between being overweight and education. This view is based on the assumption that people with low income and low weight tend to gain weight as soon as income begins to rise. And then, starting at a certain level of weight and income, the opposite desire arises - to maintain or reduce weight.
Perhaps there is a rationale in these theories. But, most likely, obesity is due to the fact that people increasingly began to eat food in which there are many additives that affect the biochemical processes in the body.
Indeed, earlier, when the population ate mainly natural food, there were much fewer overweight people than in the modern era.