Many people believe that extrasensory information, enriching a person, can reward him with unusual qualities that have been known to the world for millennia. Perhaps it awakens long-forgotten, but always belonged to a person, special properties, lost due to technical progress. Since ancient times, one of the ways to obtain these unusual qualities was considered craniotomy surgery.
Despite the fact that neurosurgery is a fairly new branch of medicine, our distant ancestors were also able to work with the human brain. Back in the 18th century, scientists were surprised to find skulls with traces of trepanation in French dolmens. Round and oval holes carved into the bone belonged to the Neolithic era, which greatly changed the view on the knowledge and capabilities of ancient doctors.
The operation to open the cranium is described in detail in the works of the "father of medicine", the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates. But not only the enlightened Greeks were able to do trepanation. The more new facts appeared, the more relevant the question became - why did the ancients so often resort to such a complex and dangerous procedure? The answer, according to many, lies far beyond traditional ideas about human consciousness.
The mystery of the left hemisphere
"Biology of God" - this is how the French scientist Patrick Jean Baptiste called his book. He collected and summarized many unusual experiments carried out in the United States, which testified to the biological and mental ability of a person to penetrate the upper echelons of the information universe, which lies outside the ordinary material world.
The experiments were carried out by neurosurgeons on volunteers and concerned the refinement of the brain's reactions to a sharp reduction in the exchange of information between the two hemispheres. When the connections between the left and right hemispheres were broken, a person became able to reach new levels of knowledge that were inaccessible to him before the operation.
These connections were so stable that they were recognized as real. It was found that the reason for the "exit" of a person's consciousness beyond the boundaries of the everyday world was the operation of disconnecting the left hemisphere from the area located on the right side. It was the zones of the left hemisphere, which are responsible for the awareness of the individual in the environment, that served as a kind of barrier to the expansion of consciousness.
Representatives of ancient civilizations achieved this state either by long meditations, or by moving away from the world into a desert area. There, in the absence of external influence, the shutdown of the centers of the left hemisphere occurred by itself. In this unusual way, the prophets of Babylon, the Jews received their messages - visions announced by the messages of God for their peoples.
Healing the Soul
The need for information from above was so developed in ancient civilizations that already in very distant times, in the practice of various peoples, there were people who underwent craniotomy and brain surgery. Numerous archaeological finds prove this practice. And the surviving drawings and texts in their own way confirm this mystical interest of peoples in the actions of a mysterious organ - the brain.
Craniotomy is considered one of the oldest operations in medical practice. In France, a human skull was recently found with a hole made by an unknown healer about 7 thousand years ago. In addition, over 200 trepanned skulls have been found in the departments of the Marne and Oise.
The ceremonies were widespread in England, Scandinavia, Portugal, Spain. 36 trepanations were found in Germany. Moreover, the most unusual is the craniotomy of a man who had a hole in the skull 16.5 centimeters long and 12.5 centimeters wide.
If you carefully examine this practice, you can point to hundreds of similar operations carried out at different times. Moreover, in some patients, they were repeated more than once. The fact that the medical goal was far from the main one in this strange manipulation is evidenced by the practice of African sorcerers that has survived to this day.
With the help of trepanning the skulls of their fellow tribesmen, they carry out "healing the soul" or "casting out the devil." Anthropology professor John Verano points out that it was for this purpose that the operation was carried out in the countries of the Middle Ages. Verano also studied craniotomy operations performed by Inca doctors.
The Paracas Peninsula is located two hundred kilometers from the capital of Peru, Lima. In 1925, Peruvian archaeologist Julio Tello discovered an extensive burial site here dating back to about 300-200 BC. 429 mummies were recovered from cave tombs and ground graves, most of which had an elongated skull or from one to three artificial holes in different places.
Moreover, the unusual head shape of the representatives of the Paracas culture, as well as holes in their skulls, were found only in rich burials. It has been suggested that in this privileged cemetery there were people united by a caste community, such as a priestly order. Then the impact on the heads of members of such a community, perhaps, was caused by the desire to acquire some kind of ability or knowledge. There are other assumptions as well.
But in any case, the impact on the skulls of people from infancy had to pursue very significant goals. After all, it leads to chronic headaches, mental phenomena. The deformation of the skull produced an effect on various parts of the cerebral cortex. And the holes made allowed direct contact with the brain of the chosen person.
In Paracas, the number of skulls with traces of successful intravital trepanation exceeds 80%. This testifies not only to the developed and developed trepanation technique, but also to the fact that such operations brought real results, to which the priests-healers turned over and over again. In one of the burials, a whole set of surgical instruments was found, which included obsidian knives of various sizes, a spoon made from a sperm whale tooth, needles and threads, bandages and cotton balls-tampons.
In addition, several skulls were found in Paracas, in which the holes were closed with thin gold plates overgrown with new bone tissue along the edges. Similar traces of cranial operations were found in the Nazca Valley, in the vicinity of the ancient Inca capital of Cuzco and in the north of the country.
Putting forward hypotheses about the execution of such unusual operations, the cultural historian of Paracas Miloslav Stingle admired the skill of the healers of an unknown people that existed in the pre-Incan period. He also assumed that the operations were performed to enhance the ability of people to penetrate into another world, which was hindered by the material essence of earthly bodies.
A similar assumption is based on the analysis of fantastic images of creatures flying, traveling and rejoicing in an unusual environment that adorned the funeral clothes and cloaks of deceased members of the tribe. Other worlds with strange creatures seemed to have fallen on the fabric from dreams, from another dimension, which exists in reality and is ready to accept the possessing way of traveling without bodies.
Operation for the elite
Arab and Chinese healers in numerous medical manuals have recommended trepanation for the treatment of melancholy, tumors, epilepsy, paralysis and many other diseases, as well as for the expulsion of spirits. It is believed that the practice of such operations was owned by European druids, Arab shamans, African sorcerers, and Indian priests. Preserved evidence of trepanation of famous personalities of the XVI-XVII centuries, and the names of craniosurgeons from different countries.
For example, the founder of the Jesuit order, Ignatius de Loyola, was treated with trepanation for epileptic seizures. Duke Albrecht V of Bavaria, Lorenzo Medici, Duke of Urbino, Prince Rupert of England, King of Montenegro Nicholas I, fighter for the independence of the Netherlands William of Orange, philosopher Erasmus of Rotterdam, writer Francois Rabelais were subjected to similar influences …
Such a number of eminent persons, many of whom suffered from headaches, visions and forebodings, indicates the practice of the ancient priests that has been preserved for centuries - the maintenance of the sacred functions of the leaders. The belief that rulers and leaders enjoy the support of divine powers persisted throughout the Middle Ages, and they tried to strengthen it in every possible way.
In addition, there was a tradition of trepanning jesters, fools, holy fools, who in different European cultures acted as mystical reflections of kings who fell into the underworld and therefore lost their minds. To a certain extent, such an operation was supposed to restore reason, make the mad philosopher, seer, owner of new knowledge and abilities.
Tibetan monks also used craniotomy in their practices. They noticed that the gift of clairvoyance was often revealed in people who had suffered a brain injury. Reasoning that the same effect can be achieved artificially, they began to use the operation to open the "third eye".
A monk prepared and selected according to special criteria, ready to acquire the gift of clairvoyance, was drilled a hole in his forehead, which was closed with a wooden stopper soaked in healing ointments. After a few days, when the damaged tissue healed, the plug was removed.
The operation was not only extremely painful, but also dangerous - quite often it ended with the death of the “chosen one”. Sometimes this was the fault of the carelessness of those who made the hole. And sometimes an infection introduced into the wound during the healing process. However, those who managed to survive trepanation and successfully open their "third eye" acquired a reputation as holy clairvoyants. They say that their consciousness really changed, and they began to see and hear things that were inaccessible to ordinary people.
Looking for new answers
Dr. Bart Hughes in the early 60s of the XX century wrote about craniotomy as an opportunity to achieve a harmonious state of mind, awakening creativity and mental balance. By the way, before starting active propaganda of trepanation, Hughes made a hole with a diameter of about 6 mm in his own skull and only after that he began to look for supporters of his theory.
Not far from Oxford, in an old castle, the walls of which are decorated with family portraits, Lord James Neidpath (former teacher of US President Bill Clinton) and his wife live Amanda Fielding (artist). After meeting Hughes, they underwent trepanning. Amanda is actively promoting the operation, claiming that the procedure increases mental capacity, sharpens perception and gives vitality.
Moreover, the actress believes that when she plays on stage, she gains additional emotionality and a keener understanding of the heroines, whose roles she plays. Amanda makes sure that trepanation is available and that doctors officially do it at the request of patients.
Bart Hughes believes that this is one of the most effective ways of self-discovery, achieving a higher level of consciousness, in comparison with such a way of exacerbating feelings like drug use. Amanda not only listened to all the explanations of Hughes and found them logical, but, having done trepanning at home, after 4 hours decided to check the effect of the operation.
She tied a turban on her head and went to the costume ball. According to her, she experienced the euphoria of freedom and relaxation, the richness of perception of the surrounding world and the ease of perception of everything that was happening around.
The press names musician John Lennon, as well as numerous goldsmiths, professors, art dealers from London, librarians from Amsterdam and farmers from Texas, among those willing or performing the operation. Some of them have united around Amanda as like-minded people in the "Trepanation Trust" and even sponsor scientific research of medical and philosophical institutions that study this ancient phenomenon at the present stage of human development.