Egyptian priests and Indian brahmans, Mongolian shamans and magicians of the Zoroastrians subdued the flock with the help of flickering lights, rhythmic sounds and swaying sparkling objects
Obeying the orders of the faith-hypnotists, impressionable men and especially women fell into a trance, demonstrated miracles of dexterity, walked barefoot on coals, they were overwhelmed by visions of a supposedly divine nature.
People considered hypnosis to be magic or a manifestation of divine will. What is really going on?
From a scientific (by the standards of that time) point of view, the French doctor Franz Mesmer first took up the phenomenon of hypnosis - in 1776 he developed the theory of magnetism, which states that the healing power is transferred from doctor to patient when touched by means of special magnetic fluids. With the help of these fluids, he performed cures, arranged clairvoyance sessions and immersed patients in a special trance state. Whether a genuine recovery was achieved in someone other than high-society ladies suffering from melancholy is impossible to say for certain, but mesmerism has become a craze throughout Europe - like extrasensory perception in the 90s of the XX century.
In 1842, physician James Braid linked hypnosis to the manipulation of shiny objects. Parisian psychiatrist Jean Charcot (the same one after whom Charcot's soul is named) used hypnosis to treat patients with hysteria at the Salpetriere, a hospital for insane women. He believed that the trance state arises from disorders of the nervous system and the doctor's task is to correct these disorders. His opponent Ambroise Liebeau argued that hypnosis is of a psychological nature and depends on the patient's suggestibility. The truth, as is often the case, lurked in the middle.
At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, hypnosis was actively studied in Russia. The great physiologist Pavlov and the famous psychiatrist Bekhterev set up many experiments, introducing into a trance not only people, but also chickens, dogs and even lobsters. Experiments have shown that hypnosis is associated with excitation and inhibition of the nervous system. “Before a huge force, when meeting with which there is no salvation for the animal either in struggle or in flight, the chance to remain whole is precisely in immobility, since moving objects especially attract attention to themselves … Such a“freezing”is a dream, only partial, localized "- Pavlov wrote about hypnosis of animals.
As a result, hypnosis entered medical practice primarily as a tool for psychoanalysis, work with phobias, treatment of psychological trauma, bad habits and psychosomatic diseases. Hypnosis techniques are used to relieve pain in childbirth and dental procedures, in thanatotherapy and to relieve the suffering of hopeless patients.
In parallel with the medical aspect of hypnosis, entertainment is also used. In the second half of the 20th century, pop performances of hypnotists were popular, who introduced the daredevils from among the audience into a trance, and then demonstrated hypnotic catalepsy (immobility in a given pose) and forced the experimental subjects to do all sorts of tricks - answering questions, drawing, singing, balancing.
Report to the brain
It is known that in order to hypnotize a chicken, you need to hold it by its wings, and draw a line in front of its beak with chalk. For a dog or rabbit to be put into a trance, it is enough to hold it completely still for some time. A conflict arises in the brain of the experimental creature - the instinct requires movement, fear paralyzes - and as a result, the animal falls into a trance. Under hypnosis, the animal allows its limbs to be moved and does not change its position, is practically insensitive to pain, loud sounds, etc.
To hypnotize a person, he is forced to relax, then his attention is fixed on some noticeable object or sound and, finally, a command is given - the so-called rapport. At the beginning of the 20th century, hypnotists most often rocked a gold watch on a chain in the face of the hypnotized person, but any suitable thing can be used.
The hypnotized person plunges into a state similar to a dream - he is relaxed, unable to control his actions, obeys the instructions of the hypnotist and, as a rule, does not remember anything that he did in a trance state. Hypnosis can remove a feeling of fear or disgust, relieve fatigue or phobia, make one insensitive to pain, make one talk about past events and current experiences. These simple tasks are easy to complete, but experienced professionals know about some other nuances. So, with the help of hypnosis, it is easy to determine whether the patient's paralysis, lameness or dumbness is of a physiological nature or is a consequence of psychological trauma. Experienced hypnotists inspire the necessary thoughts, remove bodily "clamps" and even give tasks that a person performs some time after the end of the session. But it was established that the order to commit suicide, steal something, publicly strip, etc. will certainly cause refusal or resistance - it is impossible to instill in a person something that in a clear consciousness he would never do.
According to experts, up to 70% of people succumb to hypnosis. You can plunge into a trance during a conversation, using a bright decoration or piece of clothing, touching the body, synchronizing the rhythm of breathing - this is used by specialists in neuro-linguistic programming. But it is impossible to hypnotize a person who consciously resists hypnosis.
Hypnotherapists themselves warn about unscrupulous, undereducated and dangerous “colleagues”. Distinguishing charlatans is quite simple:
1. They offer a panacea for smoking, alcoholism, drug addiction, obesity, impotence, depression, asthma and family problems. Hypnosis can really help in such cases, but only when used in conjunction with medications and psychotherapy.
2. They promise healing in one session. To consolidate the result, the hypnotherapist works with the patient for at least 4-6 weeks; in difficult cases, longer, as a rule, a persistent effect appears after 2-3 sessions.
3. They mix hypnotism with extrasensory perception, astrology and other mystical practices. Hypnosis is a medical method, like physical therapy or massage, there is nothing miraculous or supernatural about it.
4. They charge unreasonably high prices. An honest hypnotherapist's fees are comparable to those of a practicing psychologist.
5. Their behavior can be interpreted as sexual harassment. There is no need for a professional hypnotherapist to undress their patient, hug and stroke him, or touch anything other than the hands and head.
6. They have no medical education - only certificates from courses. A professional hypnotherapist is a practicing physician with a university degree.
6. The effect of the treatment is unstable and disappears after a few days. Real hypnotherapists know how not only to heal, but also to consolidate the results of treatment.
Let me tell fortunes
Another type of hypnosis that is dangerous for wallets and pockets is the so-called "gypsy" hypnosis, which is used by various criminal elements. There is only one scheme - to rub into the victim's trust, synchronize his breathing, contact his gaze, enter into a light trance with the help of illegible but rhythmic speech, touch his hands or face to establish a connection, give rapport - and the person obediently obeys all the orders of the rogue, and then does not remember what happened to him. All of this looks quite intimidating, but it is quite easy to defend against homebrew hypnotists - as you remember, it is enough to consciously resist hypnosis.
If a dark-skinned beauty in rings and bracelets comes up to you, asks for a smoke or asks for directions, and then in an affectionate voice says "ay, dear, I see misfortune awaits you", in a calm voice say that misfortune awaits her itself - a state house and good fine. And then turn around and leave without listening to any threats or calls. The same should be done if you are offered to buy gold "cheaply", share a found wallet, or purchase a rare medicine. The most important thing is not to engage in a long conversation, not to look eye-to-eye, and not to allow yourself to be touched. To bring a person out of a trance under "gypsy hypnosis", he needs … to wake up. Rub your ears like a drunken man, slap his face, splash water, shout "fire !!!" etc. Otherwise, he will withdraw all the money from the bank account with his own hands or take it out of his home "stash" in order to give it to fraudsters. Be attentive to yourself and your loved ones!